The goal of an IVF cycle is the birth of at least one baby per intention to treat. However, IVF cannot confer
competence on an embryo, but only can provide each couple with a safe treatment to meet a predetermined chance
of success. This commentary highlights how clinical, financial and patient-centred perspectives should be included in
the definition of success in IVF. The primary outcome, which is the cumulative live birth delivery rate per intention to
treat, must always be complemented by analyses of risks, costs and time invested, as well as by measures of patient
satisfaction. Finally, it is essential, whenever clinical conditions exist, to limit treatment discontinuation after failed
attempts. Constant monitoring of the data is pivotal and must be adjusted for patient characteristics and compared
with national and international registers. The authors aimed to review all these aspects and highlight the points that
are still open for discussion. Is it time for a consensus?

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